How “free education” is defined in two European countries
Pursuing higher education is not only a question of motivation and time but also one of financial ability. However, the question of finance needs to be discussed on different levels in different countries. Germany, as well as Ireland, claim to provide “free education” through their public-school system, which should give everybody an equal chance of achieving the same level of education without the worries of how to pay for it.
In Germany as well as in Ireland, first and second level Education in general is free. The term “free” is concerning the tuition fees on public schools and excludes, of course, costs for books, transport, school supplies, trips and so on. In Ireland, unlike in Germany, students or parents have to come up for school uniforms in addition.
The countries most important difference lays in how students need to finance third level education. Concerning this, both countries show a very different definition of “free”. The financial aid systems in Germany and in Ireland cover a different amount of student fees.
Fees and Financing in Germany
In 2014, the 16 states in Germany abrogated tuition fees for undergraduate students in all public universities. This applied to domestic as well as international students. The only fee that usually comes up today, is one to cover the administration costs as well as the social contribution to the Studentenwerk in every semester. This fee also includes a ticket which enables the student to travel around in the relevant state, using public transport, ensuring that every student can choose a university without having to consider additional costs based on its location. This fee overall is typically around 250 € but in detail depends on the university.
Germany has a special student financial aid program which is called BAföG. It is based on the Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz, which is a countrywide education support law. This can be used by German citizens to finance study and living costs in Germany as well as abroad. Usually EU students and under certain conditions non-EU students can also benefit from it Page Break
when studying in Germany. This financial aid generally applies for under 30-year olds and for the expected length of a study course, which usually is 6 Semesters.
The BAföG aid is split into two parts. The state provides 50 % of the costs, the other 50% is a loan that must be paid back either after the maximum number of semesters is reached five years after finishing a study program. There are no interests on the loan and the maximum debt to be paid back is 10.000 €. The usual monthly rates are 105 € and a student has up to 20 years’ time to be pay it off.
Fees and Financing in Ireland
Through the free fee scheme, Irish undergraduate (first-cycle) students do not face tuition costs. The scheme is managed by the Higher Education Authority (HEA). It has the responsibility to govern and regulate the higher education institutions and the higher education systems on a central government level. However, students in Ireland, domestic as well as international, are required to pay a fee similar to Germanys Semestergebühren. Initially, after getting rid of tuition fees in 1995/1996, this fee was around 150 Irish pounds for registration and examination.
As Gemma Duke who works for the Higher Education Authority (HEA) in Ireland explains, “Students who are eligible for the Free Fees Scheme are currently required to pay a student contribution charge of €3,000 per year.” The free fees scheme usually applies for Irish as well as EU/EEA and Switzerland students. Those however who do not meet the criteria face a higher fee which has to cover the tuition fee as well as the student contribution charge.
Miss Duke further explained that “If a student is not eligible for the Free Fees Scheme, the institution they attend will decide whether they are required to pay EU or Non-EU fee rates.”. This decision is based on the universities own set of policies. Students who don’t meet the Page Break
criteria for the free fees scheme, have to expect a fee usually two or three times higher than those of full EU fees which means students can pay roughly an amount between 9,750 € and 23,500 € per year. Certain study programmes like medicine can cost up to 54,000 €.
To cover the costs of the student contribution fee, Students can apply to the Student Universal Support Ireland (SUSI) for a grant to cover those if they are unable to afford them. Students are not required to pay back their free fees or their grant for the contribution fee if making use of it.
Additionally, to the grant by SUSI, there are need-based grants provided by the Department of Education & Skills. These depend on means, family size, nationality and previous academic attainment and distance from institutions. Grants can range from 305 € to 5915 € per academic year.
Picture 2: Piggybanks by QuinceMedia, Pixabay
Transferability of concepts
While Germany gives domestic as well as international students the possibility to study without having to worry about financing the university during their studies, Ireland requires domestic and EU students to still pay 3000 € per year for a public University.
However, using the BAföG in Germany, a student starts working with a loan, even if it’s without interests and 20 years payback time. Ireland in comparison does not leave the student in debt if he or she managed to pay off the student contribution charge on their own or made use of the grant through SUSI.
Problematic in the Irish concept however, is that if a student is not able to pay registration fee and contribution charge with for example just working part-time during their studies and is not eligible to make use of any grants, he or she often has to get a loan by a bank, which usually has an interest on it and does not give you as much time to pay back as the German BAföG does. Additionally, Ireland does not provide the same level of support for non-EU students as Germany does.
134,8 Billion € were planned to be spent in 2017 on public education issues by the government in Germany. Ireland planned to spend around 9,5 Billion € on education in the same year. While these numbers seem extremely far apart and could give an explanation for Irelands University fees, Germany has a population of around 82 Billion people while Ireland only has about 4,75 Million residents. This means in theory Germany spends around 1643 € per resident and Ireland around 2000 € per resident on education. This, of course, does not take into consideration how many students the country actually has but shows that the difference between the expenses for education is not as big as it first appears. Questionable is why Irish Universities still require Students to pay 3000 € per year for similar causes as German Universities who only charge a maximum amount of 500 € per academic year.